Tuesday, November 23, 2010

Quakers and Mental Illness the work of William Tuke

"In 1792 a Friend (Quaker) in York had a mental crisis and was put in the York Asylum. Friends were not allowed to visit her. She died within a few weeks. Friends then investigated the conditions there, and found that the patients were treated worse than animals. In fact, because the patients couldn't think clearly, they were thought to be like animals.

Concerned Friends enlisted William Tuke, a Quaker tea merchant. He and his wife Esther had been influenced by evangelicals and were concerned about the dullness of York Friends. Tuke visited the York Asylum, and was horrified. He appealed to Friends, personal acquaintances and physicians for assistance in providing a better alternative. He collected the needed funds to build The Retreat, which opened in 1796.

The Retreat was set in the countryside outside of York, surrounded by gardens and some cows. There were no bars or gratings on the windows, and no patients were manacled. Friends ran The Retreat with little medical involvement, using Moral Treatment. The principles of treatment included:
  • Self-control - patients were rewarded if successful in controlling themselves.
  • Resocialization
  • Harmonious environment - a building that would lift the spirits, surrounded by natural beauty
  • Physical nourishment - high food standards
  • Useful occupation
  • Staff as role models
The approach of The Retreat was widely derided at the time. In a letter regarding his efforts, William Tuke noted, "All men seem to desert me." But now Tuke is considered a pioneer in modern treatment of the mentally ill."





3 comments:

  1. I had reason to visit a place of that type about two years ago, and visited a couple of times a week for several weeks. I must say that if friend Tuke is supposed the father of modern treatment, his offspring do him no justice.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Are Quakers vegetarians? I am just wondering...perhaps this is a wrong place to wonder...?? It is just that I see a slight on animals as well as on people who are having difficulty thinking clearly in all this...

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Sally, Many Quakers are vegetarian (including me), but not all. Any place is good to ask a question :^)

      Delete

Click (below) and Discover

A.E. Housman Adrian Fisher Advices and Queries Ageing Agnes L. Tierney Albert E. Day Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn Alexie Torres-Fleming Alice Stokes Paul Alice Walker Amish André Kostelanetz Andrew Cohen Animals Ann Barnes Ann Preston Anna Sewell Antoine de Saint-Exupéry Arnold Bennett Arnold Mitchell Art Arthur Gish Arthur Miller Ashley Wilcox Baltimore Yearly Meeting Basil the Great Ben Pink Dandelion Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Spock Bernard Canter Bernard of Clairvaux Betty Friedan Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh Bill Mollison Bob Dylan Bob Marley Boris Pasternak Britain Yearly Meeting Bruce Arnold Bruderhof Caitriona Reed Caroline Stephen Celtic Wisdom Charles Dudley Warner Charles E. Kellogg Charles H. Spurgeon Charlie Chaplin Charlotte Brontë Chellie Pingree Children Christina Rossetti Christopher Bamford Christopher Morley Claudio Oliver Comments about Quakers Community Conflict Contemplative Scholar Corita Kent Craig Barnett Creation Creativity D H Lawrence D. H. Lawrence Dag Hammarskjold Daniele Varè David J. Clark Dean Ornish Death Dennis Kucinich Desmond Tutu Dinah Craik Dinah Maria Mulock Craik Diversity Donald Soper Dora Willson Doris Lessing Dorothy L. Sayers Dorothy Law Nolte Dostoyevsky Douglas V. Steere Duane S. Elgin E. F. Schumacher E. Nesbit E.F. Schumacher. Green wisdom Eberhard Arnold Ed Begley Jr Edna St. Vincent Millay Education Edward Abbey Edward Bulwer-Lytton Edwin Way Teale Elise Boulding Elizabeth Bathurst Elizabeth Berg Elizabeth Fry Elizabeth Goudge Elizabeth Kubler-Ross Elizabeth Watson Ellen M. Ross Elsie Boulding Emil Fuchs Emily Greene Balch Eugene O'Neill Eve Balfour Evelyn Sturge Evelyn Underhill F. Scott Fitzgerald Faith Faith Baldwin Family Life Family lLife Farming Fear Food Forgiveness Forgivingness Francis Brown Francis de Sales Francis Howgill Frank Zappa Franz Winkler Frederick Parker-Rhodes Freedom Friendship Fyodor Dostoyevsky Gardening Garrison Keillor Gary Snyder Gene Logsdon Geoffrey Durham George Amoss Jr George Bernard Shaw George Fox Gerard Manley Hopkins Giovanni Boccaccio Goethe Grace Blindell Gratitude Green Wisdom Growing Grace Farm Gustave Flaubert H.G. Wells Hamlin Garland Hannah Heinzekehr Haruki Murakami Harvey Gillman Hay Quaker Health Helen Fox Helen Nearing Henri Frederic Amiel Henri Nouwen Henri-Frédéric Amiel Henry David Thoreau Henry T. Hodgkin Henry Van Dyke Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Henry Ward Beecher Herb Walters Herman Melville Hermann Hesse Hilda Clark Horace B Pointing Howard H. Brinton Iris Graville Iris Murdoch Isaac Newton Isaac Penington Isabel Allende Islamic Wisdom J. Field J.D. Belanger Jack Kornfield James Fenimore Cooper James Nayler James Parnell James Riemermann James Thurber Jan Struther Jana Llewellyn Jane Addams Jane Austen Jane Goodall Jean Toomer Jean Webster Jeanne Roy Jennifer Kavanagh Jenny Spinks Jewish Wisdom Jimmy Carter Johann Christoph Arnold John Dear John Donne John Dunston John Everard John Field John Fowles John Greenleaf Whittier John Howard Yoder John Lubbock John Milton John Muir John Nicholson John O'Donohue John of Ruysbroeck John Patrick Shanley John Robbins John Ruskin John Seymour John Steinbeck John W Rountree John William Grahamuaker Wisdom John Wood John Woolman Jon Krakauer Jonathan Edwards Joni Mitchell Josef Pieper Joseph Brackett Joseph Campbell Joseph Conrad Joshua Loth Liebman Joy Kallistos Ware Kathryn Damiano Keith Stewart Kenneth Boulding Kenneth Grahame Kent Nerburn Kristen Boye Kristin Kimball L. Frank Baum L.M. Montgomery Larry McMurtry Laura Ingalls Wilder Leila Lees Leo Tolstoy Leonard Cohen Leonardo da Vinci Lewis Carroll Leymah Gbowee Little Falls Friends Lois Rock Lorna M. Marsden Lorraine Anderson Love Lucy Maud Montgomery M. Scott Peck Madeleine L'Engle Marcus Aurelius Margaret Fell Margaret Mead Marie Curie Mariellen O. Gilpin Mark Birch Mary J. Tabor Masanobu Fukuoka Matt Kinsi Max Carter May Sarton Maya Angelou Meister Eckhart Melancholy Jane Mennonite Mennonite Wisdom Michel de Montaigne Mildred Tonge Miriam Toews Monica Muhammad Ali Naomi King Nathaniel Hawthorne Neil Young Nikos Kazantzakis Non-violence. Nonconformity Norma Jacob Oliver Cromwell Oscar Wilde Pamela Haines Parker J. Palmer Paul A. Lacey Paul Lacey Paul Newman Paulo Coelho Peace Peace. Pearl S. Buck Pete Dunne Pierre Teilhard de Chardin Plainness Pleasure Poetry Poetry. Prayer Primo Levi Prison Quaker action Quaker history Quaker Lives Quaker Scientists Quaker views Quaker Wisdom Quaker Women Quiet Rachel Carson Rachel Sontag Rainer Maria Rilke Ray Bradbury Ray Lovegrove Rebecca James Hecking Redeeming the Dirt Renewal Rhoda Janzen Richard P. Feynman Richard Proenneke Richard Scatchard Robert Barclay Robert Browning Robert Burns Robert E. Lee Robert E. Reuman Robert Griswold Robert Louis Stevenson Robert Maynard Hutchins Robertson Davies Roger Bartlett Roger Scruton Rudy Henry Wiebe Rufus Jones Rufus M. Jones Seasons Self-sufficiency Shakers Shirley Williams Silence Simon Heywood Simplicity Slavery Sm Keen Solitude Stephen Crisp Sterling Olmstead Sue Bender Susanne Kromberg Sustainability Sylvia Townsend Warner T.H.White Teresa of Avila The Jones Family The Quaker Dharma The Quaker Scholar Thomas A' Kempis Thomas Clarkson Thomas Kelly Thomas Moore Thomas More Thomas R. Kelly Thomas Traherne Thornton Wilder Time Tom Walsh Tove Jansson Trust Truth U.A. Fanthorpe Unitarian Wisdom Universal Wisdom Universal; wisdom Ursula Franklin Vegetarian Wisdom Veronica Nicholson Victoria Pearson Video Virginia Shurman Virginia Woolf W Ross Chapman Walt Whitman War Warren E. Burger Wealth Wee Dragon Wendell Berry Willa Cather William Blake William Charles Braithwaite William George Jordan William H. Sessions William Law William Leddra William Penn William Wordsworth Willis D. Nutting Wisdom Wolf Mendl Work Worship